- Overview
- Design
evaluation
- Get
the PK model
`Linear1InfusionSingleDose_ClV`

from the library of models - Set mu and omega for each parameter
- Create the
error model to the response PK
`RespPK`

- Create the administration parameters of the response PK
- Create the
sampling times for the response PK
`RespPK`

- Create
an arm called
`arm1`

of size 150 with administration`administrationRespPK`

and samplings`samplingTimesRespPK`

- Add the arm
`arm1`

to the design`design1`

- Evaluate the population, individual and Bayesian FIMs
- Display the results of the design evaluation
- Create and save the report for the design evaluation

- Get
the PK model
- Design
optimization
- Create an sampling times
- Define design constraints
- Create the constraint arm and the associated design
- Set the the parameters of the PSO algorithm and run the algorithm for the design optimization with a population FIM
- Run the PSO algorithm for the optimization with a population FIM
- Display the results of the design optimization
- Create and save the report for the design optimization
- Set the the parameters of the PGBO algorithm and run the algorithm for the design optimization with a population FIM
- Run the PGBO algorithm for the optimization with a population FIM
- Display the results of the design optimization
- Create and save the report for the design optimization
- Set the the parameters of the Simplex algorithm and run the algorithm for the design optimization with a population FIM
- Run the Simplex algorithm for the optimization with a population FIM
- Display the results of the design optimization
- Create and save the report for the design optimization

- References

In this example, we simulate an 1-compartment model with linear elimination for IV infusion over 1 hour (inspired by (Sukeishi et al. 2022)). One hundred and fifty (150) subjects receive a 400mg loading dose on the first day, followed by 4 daily doses of 200mg. Blood samples are taken at the end of the \(1^{st}\) infusion (H1), H20, H44, H66 and H120. By evaluating this design, we will then select 4 sampling times on intervals (0,48) and (72,120) for an optimal design using PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization) algorithm. The same optimization problem will also be run with PGBO (Population Based Genetic Optimization) and Simplex algorithm.

Reports of the design evaluation and optimization are available at https://github.com/iame-researchCenter/PFIM

`Linear1InfusionSingleDose_ClV`

from the
library of models`RespPK`

`RespPK`

`arm1`

of size 150 with
administration `administrationRespPK`

and samplings
`samplingTimesRespPK`

```
evaluationPop = Evaluation( name = "",
modelEquations = modelEquations,
modelParameters = modelParameters,
modelError = modelError,
outcomes = list( "RespPK" ),
designs = list( design1 ),
fim = "population",
odeSolverParameters = list( atol = 1e-8, rtol = 1e-8 ) )
evaluationFIMPop = run( evaluationPop )
evaluationInd = Evaluation( name = "",
modelEquations = modelEquations,
modelParameters = modelParameters,
modelError = modelError,
outcomes = list( "RespPK" ),
designs = list( design1 ),
fim = "individual",
odeSolverParameters = list( atol = 1e-8, rtol = 1e-8 ) )
evaluationFIMInd = run( evaluationInd )
evaluationBay = Evaluation( name = "",
modelEquations = modelEquations,
modelParameters = modelParameters,
modelError = modelError,
outcomes = list( "RespPK" ),
designs = list( design1 ),
fim = "Bayesian",
odeSolverParameters = list( atol = 1e-8, rtol = 1e-8 ) )
evaluationFIMBay = run( evaluationBay )
```

```
plotOptions = list( unitTime=c("hour"), unitResponses= c("mcg/mL","DI%") )
outputFile = "Example02_EvaluationPopFIM.html"
Report( evaluationFIMPop, outputPath, outputFile, plotOptions )
outputFile = "Example02_EvaluationIndFIM.html"
Report( evaluationFIMInd, outputPath, outputFile, plotOptions )
outputFile = "Example02_EvaluationBayFIM.html"
Report( evaluationFIMBay, outputPath, outputFile, plotOptions )
```

We create sampling times that will be used in the initial design for comparison during the optimization process. As PSO does not optimize the dose regimens, we keep the same administration.

We define sampling times constraints that aim to select 4 sampling times: 2 within the interval [1,48], and 2 within [72, 120], with at least a delay of 5 between two points.

```
optimization = Optimization( name = "",
modelEquations = modelEquations,
modelParameters = modelParameters,
modelError = modelError,
optimizer = "PSOAlgorithm",
optimizerParameters = list(
maxIteration = 100,
populationSize = 10,
personalLearningCoefficient = 2.05,
globalLearningCoefficient = 2.05,
showProcess = T ),
designs = list( design2 ),
fim = "population",
outcomes = list( "RespPK") )
```

```
optimizationPGBO= Optimization( name = "",
modelEquations = modelEquations,
modelParameters = modelParameters,
modelError = modelError,
optimizer = "PGBOAlgorithm",
optimizerParameters = list(
N = 30,
muteEffect = 1,
maxIteration = 300,
purgeIteration = 10,
seed = 42,
showProcess = TRUE ),
designs = list( design2 ),
fim = "population",
outcomes = list( "RespPK") )
```

```
optimizationSimplex= Optimization( name = "",
modelEquations = modelEquations,
modelParameters = modelParameters,
modelError = modelError,
optimizer = "SimplexAlgorithm",
optimizerParameters = list( pctInitialSimplexBuilding = 20,
maxIteration = 100,
tolerance = 1e-6,
showProcess = TRUE ),
designs = list( design2 ),
fim = "population",
outcomes = list( "RespPK") )
```

Sukeishi, Asami, Kotaro Itohara, Atsushi Yonezawa, Yuki Sato, Katsuyuki
Matsumura, Yoshiki Katada, Takayuki Nakagawa, et al. 2022.
“Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of GS-441524, the Active
Metabolite of Remdesivir, in Japanese COVID-19 Patients with Renal
Dysfunction.” *CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems
Pharmacology* 11 (1): 94–103.