An R-package which contains functions to set up risk-adjusted quality control charts in health care.

Main features


You can install the released version of vlad from CRAN with:


You can install the development version from GitHub with:

# install.packages("devtools")

The package compiles C++ source code during installation, therefore you need the appropriate compilers:

On Windows you need Rtools available from CRAN.

On macOS you need the Clang 6.x compiler and the GNU Fortran compiler from macOS tools. Having installed the compilers, you need to open a terminal and start R via ‘PATH=/usr/local/clang6/bin:$PATH R’. You can then install the package via devtools::install_github(“wittenberg/vlad”)


Supplemental material: Risk-adjusted CUSUM charts under model error


Philipp Wittenberg and Sven Knoth


GPL (>= 2)


Knoth, S, P Wittenberg, and FF Gan. 2019. “Risk-Adjusted CUSUM Charts Under Model Error.” Statistics in Medicine 38 (12): 2206–18. https://doi.org/10.1002/sim.8104.

Steiner, SH, RJ Cook, VT Farewell, and T Treasure. 2000. “Monitoring Surgical Performance Using Risk-Adjusted Cumulative Sum Charts.” Biostatistics 1 (4): 441–52. https://doi.org/10.1093/biostatistics/1.4.441.

Wittenberg, P, FF Gan, and S Knoth. 2018. “A Simple Signaling Rule for Variable Life-Adjusted Display Derived from an Equivalent Risk-Adjusted CUSUM Chart.” Statistics in Medicine 37 (16): 2455–73. https://doi.org/10.1002/sim.7647.